Coin Cell / Button Cell Battery Guide

Button Cell / Coin Cell Batteries
Button and coin cell batteries are used to power small, portable electronics devices like the keyless entry remote for your car, laser pointers, pocket calculators, implantable cardiac defibrillators and even artificial cardiac pacemakers.

ValuePaq energy cr2032 2032 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 2032 ecr2032 duracell dl2032 rayovac varta panasonic cr2032 seiko

Most button cell and coin cell batteries have a low self-discharge, which means they hold their charge for a long time, giving them a long shelf-life. Because they’re so consistent and reliable, these types of batteries are great for use in products that require long, continuous service. They keep us on time when used in wristwatches, and in the case of pacemakers, we trust them with our lives, with a single battery providing five to ten years of artificial heartbeat.

Coin and button cells derive their names from their shape and size – thinner variants are called coin cells because they resemble coins, while thicker ones are called button cells because, you guessed it – they look like buttons. Their size ranges from 5 to 25 millimeters in diameter and 1 to 6 millimeters in height, and they’re single cell, usually primary cell batteries, which means they are single-use and disposable. Secondary cell batteries are rechargeable, though seldom seen when it comes to coin/button cells. Most commonly, secondary button and coin cells are used in computers and handheld gaming devices to store data when the device is powered off.

There are three main types of battery chemistries used in button/coin cells: alkaline, lithium and silver oxide. While they’re physically interchangeable, certain battery chemistries are preferable depending on usage specifications. For example, high drain applications like speakers and cameras will have different energy needs than a wireless remote control. The more you know about coin and button cell specs, the better you’ll be able to maximize battery life and efficacy. We’ll take a look at some of the major characteristics of alkaline, lithium and silver oxide batteries below.

Alkaline Button/Coin Cell Batteries (1.5 Volts)

When compared to lithium and silver oxide, alkaline batteries, which are denoted by the IEC prefix "LR”, provide the least capacity and stable voltage. Alkaline voltage drops gradually with use, rather than lithium and silver oxide batteries, which provide steady, stable voltage before experiencing a sharp drop-off at the ends of their lives.


Since alkalines average around half the life of lithium and silver oxide, they are cheaper, meaning they are most likely to be included with any electronics you purchase, like kids’ toys or watches. However, if you are looking to replace the batteries in such a device, it’s going to be worth your while to invest in a lithium or silver oxide battery. These may be a little more expensive, but the return on investment you’ll get will easily pay for itself. And in the case of time telling devices, or metering equipment such as the light meter on a camera, stable voltage is always preferred in order to ensure accuracy.

Silver oxide batteries, which are denoted by the IEC prefix “SR”, are also a greener alternative to alkaline, as they are recyclable.

Note: For clarification, battery voltage and mAh refer to separate energy characteristics.

mAh (milli-ampere hour) measures battery capacity. In other words – how much current a battery will discharge over a one hour period. Higher mAh ratings correspond to how long a current can be drawn, rather than how fast it can be drawn. The mAh abbreviation is also written as Ah or Ampere-hour. (1 Ah = 1,000 mAh). Overall capacity is influenced by factors like temperature and speed of discharge. A 40 mAh battery can discharge 40 milliamps for one hour, 20 milliamps for two hours, and so on.

Voltage is a measurement of electrical potential, with all batteries being rated in volts DC (direct current). Voltage is determined by electrochemical reactions that occur in the battery, which vary according to battery type.

Silver Oxide (1.5 Volts) vs. Lithium (3 Volts) Button/Coin Cell Batteries
The choice between lithium and Silver Oxide batteries is a matter of voltage. Lithium batteries have a nominal 3 volt output, and silver oxide batteries operate at 1.5 volts. So, you’ll want to find out what type of voltage is required for the device you’re using. The easiest way to do so is by looking at the battery being replaced, which should have all the info you need. Battery requirements can also be found in product manuals, and often on the product itself.

All coin cell lithium batteries consist of lithium manganese dioxide chemistries (Li-MnO2), which account for 80% of the lithium battery market. Li-MnO2 chemistry is denoted by the IEC prefix “CR”, which we’ll discuss more below. Because it operates at 3 volts, one Li-MnO2 can replace two alkaline or silver-oxide cells, which function at 1.5 volts. It’s worth noting that voltage can be subject to fluctuate slightly depending on the quality of the battery maker. So, the more reputable the company, the more likely the battery will be of maximal quality.

Aside from superior capacity compared to alkaline batteries, lithium and silver oxide batteries have better leakage resistance, meaning they are less subject to corrosion, which can damage and destroy your device. They are also more lightweight and heat/cold resistant, functioning better in temperature extremes.

There are a couple other aspects of silver oxide batteries worth noting. Replacing a mercury button cell, which may be found in older photography equipment, with a silver oxide battery will affect the light meter settings, requiring them to be recalibrated. Mercury batteries, which are no longer produced, operated at 1.35 volts, compared to silver oxide's 1.5 volt discharge. Also, silver oxide watch batteries may have an "SW" or "W" suffix, which some makers use to denote whether the battery is a low drain (SW) or high drain (W) device. However, the IEC simply denotes that a watch battery is compliant with its standards with a "W" suffix, which can be confusing.

You can make a reasonable determination of whether a watch or other device is high or low drain type by its features and functionality. If it's backlit, records the temperature and has a calculator, it's probably high drain. If you're not sure, the best way to be certain is to contact the manufacturer for the battery's specifications. When in doubt, go with high drain – they will last longer in both types of devices.

Battery Naming Standards

The way batteries are named can make it confusing to find what you need. Thankfully, once you know the format, the process becomes much easier.

Every battery has a standardized name. There are multiple sets of battery naming standards, but currently the most prevalent is IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission), though others such as ANSI (American National Standards Institute) may be seen.

In an ideal world, button/coin cell batteries will have their IEC classification prominently displayed.

Take a look at the battery on the right. As you can see, it’s a CR2032, which tells you that it is a single cell, round lithium battery with a diameter of 20 mm and a height of 3.2 mm. How did we get all that from a few letters and numbers? Let’s break it down.

The first letter, C, denotes the battery chemistry, in this case Lithium. The next letter, R, tells us the battery shape: round. Battery shapes can also be Flat (F), Square (S), and  simply Not Round (P).

Finally, the three or four digit reference numbers on the batteries indicate their exact or approximate size as needed. In this case, 2032 tells us that the battery is 20mm in diameter and 3.2mm thick.

Other modifiers can be used to denote whether a battery consists of multiple cells (a numerical prefix corresponding to cell amount), whether it’s a high or low drain device and more. In silver oxide batteries, the SW suffix corresponds to use in a low drain device, while W refers to use in high drain devices.[3]

Refer to the chart below for a full list of Button/Coin cell battery types and nomenclature.

Lithium Coin Cell Battery Conversion Chart

IEC names Sony Coin Cells ValuePaq Coin Cells Typical capacity
(mAh)
Standard discharge current
(mA)
Dimensions
d. × h.
(mm)
Comments
CR927 VAL-927 Replaces ECR92, CR927, DL927, DL927B, ECR927, KCR927, 5011LC, LM927, BR927, BR927-1W, CR927-1W, CX927 30  9.5 × 2.7 Used extensively in blinkies. Also used in some LEGO toys.
CR1025 ValuePaq energy cr1025 1025 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 1025 ecr1025 duracell dl1025 rayovac varta panasonic cr1025 seiko copy 30  0.1 10 × 2.5
CR1130 11.5 x 3.0  A rare battery, sometimes used in car security (car alarm/keyfob batteries), organizer (backup battery for PDA such as Psion etc.), and glucometer equipment. [Also some pedometers.] also k.a DL1130, BR1130, KL1130, L1130, ECR1130, KCR1130, E-CR1130, KECR1130



CR1216 Sony CR1216Sony CR1216 Lithium Battery 3V, 30 mAh TearStrip ValuePaq energy cr1216 1216 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 1216 ecr1216 duracell dl1216 rayovac varta panasonic cr1216 seiko 25  0.1 12.5 × 1.6 Used in some lighted watches and some LED decorator lights (electronic tea candles).
CR1220 Sony CR1220Sony CR1220 Lithium Battery 3V, 40 mAh TearStrip ValuePaq energy cr1220 1220 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 1220 ecr1220 duracell dl1220 rayovac varta panasonic cr1220 seiko 35–40 0.1 (CR)
0.03 (BR)
12.5 × 2.0 Used in keychain LED flashlights. Sometimes used instead of CR2032 in electronic tea lights.
CR1225 ValuePaq energy cr1225 1225 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 1225 ecr1225 duracell dl1225 rayovac varta panasonic cr1225 seiko 50  0.2 12.5 × 2.5 Maximum discharge current: 1 mA. Maximum pulse discharge current: 5 mA.
CR1616 Sony CR1616Sony CR1616 Lithium Battery 3V, 60 mAh TearStrip ValuePaq energy cr1616 1616 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 1616 ecr1616 duracell dl1616 rayovac varta panasonic cr1616 seiko 50–55 0.1 16 × 1.6 Used in automobile key remotes and in Game Boy cartridges (for powering the RAM for saved games).
CR1620 Sony CR1620Sony CR1620 Lithium Battery 3V, 80 mAh TearStrip ValuePaq energy cr1620 1620 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 1620 ecr1620 duracell dl1620 rayovac varta panasonic cr1620 seiko 75–78 0.1 16 × 2.0 Used in automobile key remotes and early digital watches.
CR1625 ValuePaq energy cr1625 1625 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 1625 ecr1625 duracell dl1625 rayovac varta panasonic cr1625 seiko 0.1 16 × 2.5 Used in automobile key remotes and early digital watches.
CR1632 Sony CR1632Sony CR1632 Lithium Battery 3V, 140 mAh TearStrip RN-CR1632, BR1632, KL1632, DL21632, ECR1632, 1632, L1632,  NSN - 6135-01-452-8160 140 
120 (BR)
0.1 (CR)
0.03 (BR)
16 × 3.2 Used in automobile key remotes. (e.g., Toyota Prius 2012)
CR2012 55  0.1 20 × 1.2
CR2016 Sony CR2016Sony CR2016 Lithium Battery 3V, 90 mAH TearStrip RN-CR2016, BR 2016, KL 2016, DL 2016, ECR 2016, 2016, L1 2016 90  0.1 (CR)
0.03 (BR)
20 × 1.6 Frequently used in digital watches. Often used in pairs instead of CR2032 for devices that require more than 3 V, like blue/white LED flashlights.
CR2020 115-125 20 × 2
CR2025 Sony CR2025Sony CR2025 Lithium Battery 3V, 160 mAh TearStrip
ValuePaq energy cr2025 2025 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 2025 ecr2025 duracell dl2025 rayovac varta panasonic cr2025 seiko
160–165 0.2 20 × 2.5 Frequently used in digital watches and automobile remotes. Also in Fitbit Zip.
CR2032
Sony CR2032Sony cr2032 2032 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 2032 ecr2032 duracell dl2032 rayovac varta panasonic cr2032 seiko
ValuePaq CR2032ValuePaq energy cr2032 2032 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 2032 ecr2032 duracell dl2032 rayovac varta panasonic cr2032 seiko
225 (CR)
190 (BR)
0.2 (CR)
0.03 (BR)
20 × 3.2 Maximum discharge current: 3 mA. Maximum pulse discharge current: 15 mA. Commonly used on computer Motherboards as Nonvolatile BIOS memory and Real-time clock (RTC) backup batteries. This is also the most common lithium cell. Weighs around 2.9 grams.

CR2320 110–175  23 × 2 3 V
CR2325 165–210 23 × 2.5 The most common battery size in Soviet/Russian electronic watches, calculators and remote controls.
CR2330 ValuePaq energy cr2330 2330 lithium coin cell 5 pack energizer 2330 ecr2330 duracell dl2330 rayovac varta panasonic cr2330 seiko 265 
255 (BR)
0.2 (CR)
0.03 (BR)
23 × 3.0
BR2335 165 (BR) 23 × 3.5
CR2354 560  0.2 23 × 5.4
CR2412 100  0.2 24.5 × 1.2
CR2430 Sony CR2430Sony CR2430 Lithium Battery 3V, 330 mAh TearStrip ValuePaq Energy 2430 3 Volt Lithium Coin Cell 5 pack CR2430 RN-CR2430, BR 2430, KL 2430, DL22430, ECR 2430, 2430, L 2430 270–290 24.5 × 3.0
CR2450 Sony CR2450Sony CR2450 Lithium Battery 3V, 610 mAh TearStrip 610–620  24.5 × 5.0 Portable devices requiring high current (3.0 mA) and long shelf life (up to 10 years)
CR2477 1000  0.2 24.5 × 7.7 Has the highest capacity of lithium button cell batteries.
CR3032 500–560
500 (BR)
0.1 to 0.2 (CR)
0.03 (BR)
30.0 × 3.2 Continuous discharge current take from Panasonic Catalog.
CR11108 160 11.6 × 10.8 Also called CR1/3N because it is one third the height of an alkaline N cell, and a stack of three of them will form a battery with the same dimensions as an N cell, but with 9 V terminal voltage. Such 9 V batteries in a single package do exist but are rare and only usually found in specialist applications; they can be referred to as 3CR1/3N. However 2CR1/3N, a 6 V battery consisting internally of a stack of two CR1/3N is sold by Duracell, Energizer and others. A CR1/3N was also used by photographers instead of 2 LR44 batteries, in cameras such as the Nikon EM or Nikon FE2.

Most
common
name
Other common names Sony Silver Oxide Sony Alkaline ValuePaq Silver Oxide ValuePaq Alkaline Typical capacity (mAh) Dimensions (mm) dia. x h.

SR41

LR41

AG3/SG3/G3-A
LR41
192/384/392
6135-99-949-0402 (NSN)(S)

Sony 392 / 384Sony 392 / 384 SR41W/SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony LR41 / 192Sony LR41 Alkaline Battery 1.5V TearStrip = 192 / AG3

SR736 (S)

val-392-5 392 SR41 384 1134SO

LR736 (L)

ValuePaq Energy AG3 LR41 G3 192 392 SR41W

25–32 (L)
38–45 (S)
7.9 × 3.6
SR43 AG12/SG12
LR43
L1142
186/301/386
6135-99-547-0573 (NSN)(S)

Sony 386 / 301Sony 386 / 301 SR43W/SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony LR43 / 186Sony LR43 Alkaline Battery 1.5V TearStrip = 186 / AG12 LR1142 (L)
SR1142 (S)
226, Duracell D386, Eveready 386, GP - GP386, LR43, SR43, Maxell - SR43W, 1132SO, 1133SO, GS12, RW34, S1142, RW44, SP386, - 386, SB-B8, 548, V386 80 (L)
120–125 (S)
11.6 × 4.2

SR44

LR44

AG13/SG13
LR44/LR154
6135-99-792-8475 (NSN)(alkaline)
6135-99-651-3240 (NSN)(S)
A76/S76/EPX76
157/303/357
1128MP, 208-904, A-76, A613, AG14,
AG-14, CA18, CA19, CR44, D76A,
G13A, G13-A, GDA76, GP76A, GPA7,
GPA75, GPA76, GPS76A, KA, KA76, AG76,
L1154, L1154C, L1154F, L1154G,
L1154H, LR44G, LR44GD, LR44H,
MS76H, PX76A, PX675A, RPX675,
RW82, SB-F9, V13G, 357A

Sony 357 / 303Sony 357 303 SR44W/SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

 

Sony LR44 / A76Sony LR44 Alkaline Battery 1.5V TearStrip = A76 / AG13

SR1154 (S)

LR1154 (L)

110–150 (L)
170–200 (S)
11.6 × 5.4
SR45 AG9/SG9
LR45
194/394
6135-99-782-4675 (NSN)(S)

Sony 394

Sony 394 SR936SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

LR936 (L)
SR936 (S)
48 (L)
55–70 (S)
9.5 × 3.6
SR48 AG5/SG5
LR48
L750
193/309/393
Sony 393 / 309Sony 393 / 309 SR48W/754SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR754 (L)
SR754 (S)
ValuePaq Energy AG5 LR754 LR48 193 393 SR754W 52 (L)
70 (S)
7.9 × 5.4

SR54

LR54

AG10/SG10/G10-A
LR54
189/387/389/390
LR1130/SR1130
6135-99-796-0471 (NSN)(S)

Sony 389 / 390Sony 389 / 390 SR1130W/SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony LR1130 / 189Sony LR1130 Alkaline Battery 1.5V TearStrip = 189 / AG10

SR1131 (S)

ValuePaq Energy Duracell - D389, Eveready - 389, IEC - SR54, Maxell - SR1130W, NEDA Number - 1138SO, RW49, S1131, Panasonic - SP389, Rayovac - 389-1, Varta - V389

LR1131 (L)

ValuePaq Energy AG10, LR1130, LR54, 389, SR1130W

44–68 (L)
80–86 (S)
11.6 × 3.1
SR55 AG8/SG8
LR55
191/381/391
LR1120/SR1120

Sony 391 / 381Sony 391 / 381 SR1120W/SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony LR1120 / 191Sony LR1120 Alkaline Battery 1.5V TearStrip = 191 / AG8 LR1121 (L)
SR1121 (S)
40–42 (L)
55–67 (S)
11.6 × 2.1
365,366,S16,608

Sony 365Sony 365 SR1116W 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony 366Sony 366 SR1116SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

SR1116SW  sr1116sw 28-40 11.6 × 1.65
SR57

AG7/SG7
LR57
195
395(low-drain), 399(high-drain)
LR927/SR927
SR927W, SR927SW, GR927
6135-99-796-0471 (NSN)(S)

Sony 399 / 395Sony 399 / 395 SR927W/SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR926 (L)
SR926 (S)
46 (L)
55–67 (S)
9.5 × 2.6
SR58 AG11/SG11
LR58
162/361/362

Sony 361Sony 361 SR721W 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony 362Sony 362 SR721SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

LR721 (L)
SR721 (S)
18–25 (L)
33–36 (S)
7.9 × 2.1
SR59 AG2/SG2
LR59
196/396/397

Sony 396

Sony 396 SR726W 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony 397Sony 397 SR726SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

LR726 (L)
SR726 (S)
26 (L)
30 (S)
7.9 × 2.6

SR60

LR60

AG1/SG1
LR60
164/364

Sony 364

Sony 364 SR621SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

SR621 (S)

ValuePaq Energy 364 SR60 363 1175SO

LR621 (L)

13 (L)
20 (S)
6.8 × 2.1
SR63 AG0/SG0
LR63
379

Sony 379

Sony 379 SR521SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

LR521 (L)
SR521 (S)
10 (L)
18 (S)
5.8 × 2.1
SR64 LR64
319
Sony 319Sony 319 SR527SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR527 (L)
SR527 (S)
12 (L)
20 (S)
5.8 × 2.7
SR65 SR616SW
321
Sony 321Sony 321 SR616SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR65
Varta V321
6.8 × 1.65

SR66

LR66

AG4/SG4
LR66
177/376/377
SR626SW

Sony 376

Sony 376 SR626W 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony 377Sony 377 SR626SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

SR626 (S)

ValuePaq Energy VAL-377-5 376 377 SR66 1178SO

LR626 (L)

ValuePaq Energy AG4 LR626 LR66 377 SR626W

12–18 (L)
26 (S)
6.8 × 2.6
SR67 315 Sony 315 SR716 (S) 21 (S) 7.9 × 1.65
SR68 SR916SW
373
Sony 373Sony 373 SR916SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR916 (L)
SR916 (S)
 sr68 26 (S) 9.5 × 1.6
SR69 AG6/SG6
LR69
171/371/370
LR920/SR920

Sony 370Sony 370 SR920W 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

Sony 371Sony 371 SR920SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

LR921 (L)
SR921 (S)
30 (L)
55 (S)
9.5 × 2.1
SR516 SR516SW
317
Sony 317Sony 317 SR516SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR516 (L)
SR516 (S)
11 (S) 5.8 × 1.6
SR416 SR416SW
337
Sony 337Sony 337 SR416SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR416 (L)
SR416 (S)
8 (S) 4.8 × 1.6
SR731 SR731SW
24
329
Sony 329Sony 329 SR731SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip LR731 (L)
SR731 (S)
 sr731 36 (S) 7.9 × 3.1
SR512

SR512SW

335

Sony 335

Sony 335 SR512SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

SR714

SR714SW

341

Sony 341

Sony 341 SR714SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip

SR712

SR712SW

346

Sony 346Sony 346 SR712SW 1.55V Silver Oxide Battery TearStrip SR712 (S) 9 (S) 7.9 × 1.3
Brand Specific Naming

Here’s where battery types and names can really get confusing. Companies often provide specific battery names other than the industry standard in order to encourage people to buy the same brand. Consumers are led to believe that there’s something unique to a certain battery. While certain brands may vary in quality, most are actually interchangeable with any other company’s model.

If you search a battery on our site, you can find other compatible models listed in the “Replacement For” section, making it easy to compare prices and features. If you’re still unsure after consulting our buyer’s guides, contact our customer service and we’ll get you on the right track.

Safety and Precautions

Important: Button and coin cells are harmful if swallowed, and are at a higher risk of being accidentally ingested by children due to their candy-like size and shape. Be sure to store, recycle and dispose of your batteries in a safe, room temperature area out of the reach of youngsters and pets.[4]

Handle old, corroded batteries with care. Battery acid is sulfuric acid, and prolonged contact with the skin can cause irritation, pain and even burns. Though they are no longer produced for environmental reasons, mercury batteries were once a popular energy source, and while it’s unlikely you would come across one today, it’s worth noting that extra care should be taken when disposing of them.

Chemistry Type

Code

Positive Electrode

Negative Electrode

Electrolyte

Nominal Voltage

End-Point Voltage

Alkaline

L

Manganese dioxide

Zinc

Alkali

1.5

1

Silver

S

Silver oxide

Zinc

Alkali

1.55

1.2

Zinc-air

P

Oxygen

Zinc

Alkali

1.4

1.2

Lithium

C

Manganese dioxide

Lithium

Organic

3

2

Lithium

B

Carbon mono fluoride

Lithium

Organic

3

2

Lithium

G

Copper oxide

Lithium

Organic

1.5

1.2

Mercury

M or N

Mercuric oxide

Zinc

Alkaline

1.35/1.40

1.1

L = Alkaline

LR = Alkaline

AG = Alkaline

SR = Silver Oxide

SG = Silver Oxide

BR or CR = Lithium

For silver oxide and lithium batteries, the end-voltage is the value at the last usable point, after which the voltage drops very rapidly. For alkalines, which lose voltage slowly, the end-point is the voltage beyond which it is deemed that devices will not work correctly, approximately 1.0 volt.

The ability to store energy in so many different capacities allows us to do things no other creature can. Though small in stature, coin and button cell batteries have played a monumental role in ushering society into its current, hyper-connected state. These batteries are kings of convenience, saving us countless hours of time and work, and allowing us to focus on the best parts of life. Buttons cells hold together the fabric of the modern world, and for all their value, coin cells might as well be the currency.


  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_battery_sizes#Button_cells_-_coin.2C_watch. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  2. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/batteries/buying-guide.htm. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_nomenclature#History_of_the_IEC_standard. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  4. http://www.energizer.com/about-batteries/battery-care. Retrieved 17 October 2016.